Maria Montessori

Es la referencia del Método Montessori, pues ella le otorga el nombre: Maria Montessori.

Por qué es la referencia

Más que una educadora, su labor fue la de investigar el comportamiento de les niñes que tenía a su alcance y mediante la experimentación creó el Método Montessori y diseñó una serie de juguetes que trabajan el desarrollo.

Historia de Maria Montessori

La médica que da nombre al método, nació en 1870 – Chiaravalle (Ancona – Italia). De padre funcionario que le obligó a mudarse a Roma a los 5 años.

Realizó bachillerato tecnológico y se graduó en ciencias naturales por la Universidad de Roma. Después en la facultad de medicina La Sapienza fue la primera mujer italiana doctora.

Trabajó con niños y niñas deficientes mentales consiguiendo que les niñes de 8 años obtuvieran notas por encima de la media en exámenes oficiales de lectura y escritura.

Siguió con estudios de antropología, psicología y filosofía en varias ciudades europeas como Londres, París, Roma, Turín o Nápoles.

En 1907 abría en el popular barrio romano de San Lorenzo su primera “Casa dei Bambini” (para 50 niños normales de dos a cinco años) donde puso en práctica su famoso método educativo. En él, las tradicionales técnicas (rígidas, disciplinarias y pasivas) eran sustituirlas por una pedagogía basada en la estimulación sensorial, el uso de material didáctico, el fomento de la espontaneidad y el aprendizaje del cuidado propio a fin de desarrollar la autonomía personal del niño, concebido como sujeto activo, decisor y capaz de autoeducarse.

Invitada por Alexander G. Bell (1847-1922), experto en lenguaje de sordomudos, Montessori viajó a los EE.UU. (1913) para impartir el primer curso internacional sobre su método. Tal fue el éxito que un año después cien colegios norteamericanos lo habían adoptado y era creada la American Montessori Society, presidida por Bell y con participación de Thomas Edison (1847-1931). En 1915, mostró en la Exposición de San Francisco (EE. UU.) un aula de cristal para comprobarse en vivo la metodología. En 1916, creaba en Barcelona un centro de investigación pedagógica. En 1922, fue nombrada Inspectora General de Escuelas por la administración italiana.

En 1925, celebró en Helsinki su primer congreso internacional. En 1929, creó la Asociación Montessori Internacional, con sede en Amsterdam. En 1934, dejó su cargo público al críticar el fascismo de Mussolini y se exilió en Barcelona. Ferviente católica, Montessori desarrolló en la Ciudad Condal aplicaciones de su método a la catequesis. Al estallar la Guerra Civil (1936), salió hacia los Países Bajos en un barco de guerra británico. Ese mismo año, su sistema era prohibido en Italia. La IIª Guerra Mundial la sorprendió en la India, donde permaneció hasta 1946, trabando amistad con Gandhi.

Retornó a Italia (1947), recuperó la docencia universitaria y colaboró en la reconstrucción del sistema escolar nacional. En 1949, fijó su residencia en Holanda.

Autora de una docena de libros, obtuvo sendos doctorados “honoris causa” por Durham (1926) y Amsterdam (1950). En 1950, representó a su país ante la UNESCO.

También pionera de los movimientos feminista y pacifista, estuvo nominada tres veces al Premio Nobel de la Paz (1949, 1950 y 1951). Falleció en Noordwijk (Holanda) a los 81 años.

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